The information on this page is meant to be solution-focused and helpful for Canadian retailers navigating privacy and data governance during and beyond COVID-19. If you have any questions or suggestions, please contact Kate Skipton at email@example.com.
Recent privacy updates
- Facial recognition and federal government developmentsRetailers may be interested to know that the federal Parliament’s Standing Committee on Access to Information, Privacy and Ethics (ETHI) recently … Continued
- RCC joins industry associations in asking federal government to prioritize Bill C-11Privacy and data protection are critical in our modern economy where Canadians are constantly accessing digital services to support their work, … Continued
- Privacy Commissioners release findings on facial recognition in Clearview AIOn February 3, 2021, all four Canadian private sector privacy regulators (federal, B.C., Quebec and Alberta) released their joint findings in … Continued
COVID-19 privacy implications on retailers
COVID-19 has raised many privacy issues for retailers. These include what customer and employee information can be collected, analyzed and shared as retailers try to keep stores and staff safe. Cyber risk has also increased.
Privacy and data for Canadian retailers
Almost daily, we see and hear headlines about data privacy concerns, data breaches and overall misuse of data (e.g.: Cambridge Analytica, Desjardins). Increasingly, the retail landscape requires retailers to make use of data to create great customer experiences, while also protecting individuals’ personal information.
Privacy laws and regulations generally apply when a retailer handles information that can identify an individual person. An email address, clothing size, physical location, name, credit card number, IP address, web cookies and video camera footage – these are only some examples of personal data that retailers handle. Common collection situations range from sales staff conversations with customers, payment processing, customer and employee information storage, omnichannel customer engagement across web and mobile and store security video footage. This data often flows across physical and digital landscapes and often across many national and international legal jurisdictions.
Who regulates privacy in Canada?
Federal: The federal Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada (OPC) is the main regulator for retailers handling personal information in Canada. The OPC administers Canada’s private sector privacy legislation, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA).
PIPEDA applies whenever personal information crosses provincial and territorial borders during commercial activities. PIPEDA also applies generally to personal data handled by retailers in all regions except BC, Quebec and Alberta, which have their own private sector privacy legislation.
|PIPEDA applies if information crosses provincial/national borders during commercial activities.||PIPEDA generally applies to personal data handled by retailers inside provincial or territorial borders.|
|Prince Edward Island||Yes|
Regional: Every Canadian province and territory has a regulator, in the form of a Commissioner or Ombudsperson, who oversees that region’s privacy legislation.
Regulators in Quebec, BC and Alberta comprehensively oversee privacy for retailers in those provinces. Four other provinces have regulators that govern personal health information held by retailers: Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador. View regional regulator list.
Generally, privacy regulator involvement is triggered by a complaint from an individual, such as from a customer who shares personal information with a retailer and then feels that the retailer has not taken very good care of it. View more information
What’s happening in Canadian data privacy reform?
Privacy and data regulatory frameworks are currently undergoing significant review and reform in Canada and internationally. The need for Canada to maintain “adequacy status” under Europe’s rigorous General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is part of what is driving federal and regional reforms. Retailers, especially those whose businesses involve personal data flowing across regional and international borders, will be looking at a more complex mosaic of stricter data privacy laws over the next few years in Canada and elsewhere.
What potential new privacy rules should retailers expect?
The ongoing (approx. 2019 – 2022) Canadian data privacy reforms involve a range of potentially stricter requirements intended to protect individuals’ personal information in the modern, data-driven world. Reform conversations are occurring federally, in Ontario, Quebec and British Colombia. Some new rules commonly proposed across these reforms include:
- Empowering individuals to have more control over their data. e.g.:
- Rigorous consent and transparency requirements,
- Right to have a company delete their data,
- De-indexing/the right to be forgotten (letting a person remove their information from search engine queries or databases),
- Data portability/data mobility (letting a person move all their data from one company to another)
- Empowering individuals and regulators to hold companies more accountable, e.g.: mandatory breach notification, expanded audit powers, more administrative monetary penalties and fines, private rights of action for individuals.
- Anonymizing (also called “de-identifying”) datasets to help protect the identities of those whose information is contained in the data, as well as addressing the risks of re-identification.
- Requiring consideration, to varying degrees, of legal privacy protections in countries where companies send data for storage or analysis.
- Specific process requirements, like appointing a privacy officer and mandating privacy impact assessments (PIAs).
Retailers may wish to look more closely at the regional and international markets in which they operate. They may wish to assess how their current approach to personal data protection fits with any potential new data privacy requirements in those markets.
On Tuesday, November 17, 2020, the federal government introduced Bill C-11, the Digital Charter Implementation Act, 2020 (DCIA). The DCIA, whatever its final form, will bring significant changes to the federal privacy framework currently governed under the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA). Federal privacy law generally governs personal information (PI) handled by retailers everywhere in Canada except for BC, Quebec and Alberta and applies any time PI flows across provincial borders.
Changes include a new federal administrative Tribunal to levy significant financial penalties and hear companies’ appeals to federal Privacy Commissioner findings. Bill C-11 creates maximum fines of 5% global gross revenue or $25M for serious offences and provides the OPC with stronger enforcement powers. The Bill also replaces part of PIPEDA with the Consumer Privacy Protection Act (CPPA), intended to provide consumers with increased control over their data.
In June 2020, Quebec released Bill 64, An Act to modernize legislative provisions as regards the protection of personal information.
Strongly inspired by Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Bill 64 contains many significant new requirements for retailers dealing with Quebec residents’ data. For example, retailers may not be able to transfer data outside the province of Quebec unless it goes to a jurisdiction where the legal framework provides protections equivalent to Quebec’s. This differs from the previous regime and from the current approach under PIPEDA.
Bill 64 also strengthens Quebec’s privacy enforcement regime considerably, including by adding mandatory breach notification and fines up to $25M or 4% of global turnover.
- Proposed Amendments to Québec Privacy Law: Impact for Businesses, Éloïse Gratton
- Bill 64 & PIPEDA alignment grid.
Before B.C. called its fall 2020 election, it was in the initial stages of a review of its Personal Information Protection Act (PIPA). After the election, this review can reasonably be expected to resume.
In June 2020, the B.C. Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner (OIPC) asked the Special Committee reviewing the Act to consider providing the OIPC with the following enforcement powers: mandatory breach notification, the power to issue administrative monetary penalties and the power to initiate investigations and make orders, even without a complaint.
Ontario significantly strengthened its health privacy law, the Personal Health Information Protection Act, 2004 (PHIPA), earlier in 2020. View PHIPA information.
In 2020, the Ontario government consulted on a discussion paper about a made-in-Ontario private sector privacy law. Although those consultations have since closed and a new private sector privacy law for Ontario appears unlikely as of early 2021, Ontario retailers remain governed by PIPEDA and will be affected by proposed federal privacy changes.
In the absence of any pending new Ontario private sector privacy law, Ontario retailers should look to the proposed federal privacy changes in Bill C-11’s Consumer Privacy Protection Act (CPPA) to understand more about the stronger consumer privacy requirements they may be navigating in the coming years.
For questions about these reforms, retailers can email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Privacy resources for retailers
Retail Data and Privacy Bulletins (RCC members only)
RCC Guidebook: Canadian Anti-Spam Law (CASL): Guidelines for Responsible Transmission of Electronic Messages (RCC members only)
CASL has been in force for several years and applies to email marketing and communications. This members-only Guidebook helps explain CASL for retailers (CASL may also see some changes as part of any forthcoming federal privacy reforms).
RCC Guidebook: How does the GDPR affect Canadian retailers? (RCC members only)
Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a privacy regulation that was launched in 2018. If your business has customers or even website visitors from Europe, then you may fall under the GDPR’s scope. The GDPR’s large fines (up to 20M Euro or 4% of a firm’s worldwide annual turnover, whichever is highest), global reach and influence on Canadian federal and provincial privacy reform make it relevant to Canadian retailers. RCC’s GDPR guidebook covers GDPR for Canadian retailers.
Guiding Principles on Privacy for Retailers in Canada (RCC members only)
Protecting your business and your customers’ personal information against the threats of cyber-breaches and criminal activities is paramount in today’s retail environment. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the guiding principles of the Personal Information and Protection of Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) (pre-reform) and the practical applications associated with those principles pertaining to loss prevention and fraud specifically.
Privacy Committee (RCC members only)
The Privacy Committee is comprised of retail professionals interested in and responsible for the areas of data governance and privacy. The purpose of the committee is to share best practices and information related to data governance and privacy and to help members stay ahead of the curve on issues that impact the industry.
Federal requirements on data breach record-keeping and reporting
As of November 1, 2018, retailers must notify the federal Office of the Privacy Commissioner (OPC) if they experience a data breach that creates a “real risk of significant harm” (RROSH) to the individuals whose personal information is affected. Retailers must also record how they assess whether or not a data breach is serious enough to meet the RROSH standard and require notification.
How American retailers use consumer data
Nearly two thirds of U.S. consumers say retailers, not the government or tech vendors, are responsible for data privacy, according to a 2019 Deloitte report. Most U.S. consumers think that retailers use their personal data for target marketing. In fact, the top three consumer data uses by U.S. retailers are to:
- Increase operational efficiencies
- Improve product selection
- Enhance in-store services or experiences.
Consumer journey steps in a data-driven, American retail store may now include mobile phone location data gathering, with AI assistants generating product recommendations and push notifications to personal devices while customers walk around brick-and-mortar stores.
De-identifying personal data in big datasets
Many companies including retailers analyze large volumes of data routinely (“big data”). De-identifying personal information in large datasets is often mentioned as a way to protect privacy. Also called anonymization, effective de-identification means rendering it impossible to identify an individual from the information a dataset contains about them.
However, in practice, rapidly evolving data analytics technologies make it challenging to have confidence that de-identifying any dataset can be permanently effective.
Canadian non-profit CANON is an international resource that covers the challenges posed by anonymization and lists domestic and international anonymization guidance.
How do AI and machine learning challenge traditional Canadian privacy frameworks?
Effective data governance reform is challenging in part because some of the technologies underlying the “data-driven” world handle personal information in paradigm-shifting new ways. In the case of AI and machine learning, this paradigm shift presents itself essentially for two reasons: (1) these programs can analyze much larger and more complex datasets, including unstructured data (e.g. audio, image, video and text; unstructured data comprises 80% of enterprise data), and (2) machine learning programs can teach themselves new insights and make decisions based on what they learn.
The ways these technologies can process an individual’s personal data challenge long-held privacy principles like transparency and purpose-based consent. They raise new possibilities and challenges for how data privacy frameworks can still implement those principles in ethical and economically viable ways.
As a result, legal and regulatory reform pertaining specifically to these technologies has been and continues to be under discussion in Canada and internationally. AI’s predictive capacities make it useful to retailers in many ways, e.g. to better manage inventory and supply chains.
Where can I learn more on public policy issues in Canadian data governance that affect the broader business community, not just retail?
The Business Council’s 2019 Data-Driven Issues Paper provides a thorough overview of the public policy issues facing Canadian data governance policy makers. It delves into privacy elements at issue in the PIPEDA reform and discusses other data governance areas that affect retailers, including cybersecurity, cross-border data flows and interoperability. Broadly, it puts public policy on data in context from a business standpoint.
Contact Kate Skipton, Senior Policy Analyst, at email@example.com for more information on:
- Privacy and Data Committee for RCC members
- Retail Privacy and Data Bulletins
- Consultation Submissions